Donald Trump said Sunday that "no one really knows" if climate change is real. The president-elect thus falls into one of the most common myths about the phenomenon: the lack of scientific consensus.
However, 97% of climate scientists agree that climate warming trends over the past century are due to human activities, and most of the world's leading scientific organizations have issued public statements supporting this position.
Authors of seven climate consensus studies, fed up with questions like this, co-wrote and published a text in Environmental Research Letters to make it clear once and for all.
In the document they detail that although the "consensus of the experts" can vary depending on how it is measured, between 90% and 100% of scientists agree that humans are responsible for climate change.
"Most of our studies found 97% consensus among published climate scientists," says the paper, backed by renowned authors such as Naomi Oreskes, Peter Doran, William Anderegg, Bart Verheggen, Ed Maibach, J. Stuart Carlton, and John Cook. In addition, it confirms: "The greater the climate experience of those surveyed, the greater the consensus on global warming caused by man."
Recently 375 specialists, including 30 Nobel laureates, concerned about the denial of who will assume the US presidency in just 40 days, published a letter explaining to Trump that “human-caused climate change is not a belief, a hoax or a conspiracy. It is a physical reality, "the document said.
"Fossil fuels fueled the industrial revolution. However, the burning of oil, coal, and gas also caused most of the historic increase in atmospheric levels of heat-trapping greenhouse gases. This increase in greenhouse gases the Earth's climate is changing (…) The basic science of how greenhouse gases trap heat is clear and has been for over a century, "he added.
Also the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the highest scientific body on this issue, has tirelessly affirmed: "The scientific evidence we have of climate warming is unequivocal."
Eight scientific facts that also contradict Trump
According to the US Space Agency NASA and the IPCC, these are 8 proven facts that contradict Trump and show him how much is known about the phenomenon.
1. The top three global reconstructions of surface temperature show that the Earth has warmed since 1880. Most of the warming occurred in the last 35 years, with 15 of the 16 warmest years recorded since 2001. 2015 was the first time global mean temperatures were one degree Celsius or more above the 1880-1899 average. Despite a decline in solar production in the 2000s that produced an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to rise. 2016 is expected to be the hottest year since formal registration began in 1880.
2. The oceans have absorbed much of the increased heat and this can be seen in the first 700 meters (approximately 2,300 feet) of its surface where there has been a rise of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.
3. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of the surface waters of the oceans has increased by 30%. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus being absorbed more in the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.
4. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased dramatically. Data from NASA show that Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost around 152 cubic kilometers of ice between 2002 and 2005.
5. Both the extent and the thickness of the Arctic sea ice have decreased rapidly in recent decades.
6. Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world - including in the Alps, the Himalayas, the Andes, the Rocky Mountains, Alaska, and Africa.
7. Since 1950, the number of high temperature records in the United States has risen, while record low temperatures have decreased.
8. Satellite observations reveal that the amount of snow cover in the northern hemisphere during spring has decreased over the past five decades and that snow is melting much earlier, affecting natural cycles and the business activities that depend on it.
“There is enough evidence to be alarmed. Humanity must reduce pollutant emissions caused by humans to prevent the planet's average temperature from rising more than 2 ° C above the concentration during the pre-industrial era, which would have dire consequences for the coming decades, "warned 69 awards Nobel meeting in Lindau in 2015.
The last time they spoke out against something was 60 years ago, when the laureates demonstrated against the use of nuclear weapons, a technology derived from advances in basic science. "Humanity today faces another threat of comparable magnitude: climate change. To say that it is a myth and not act is irresponsible," they stressed.