The study led by researcher Josep Peñuelas from the Spanish Higher Research Center (CSIC) at the Center for Forestry Research and Applications (CREAF) is a call for awareness and responsibility for caring for the planet.
The amounts of CO2 emitted must decrease through the development of alternative energies otherwise the Earth will go from a time of pure fertilization to one of pure warming. In fact, this change has already begun in the northern hemisphere of the planet.
Peñuelas explains "The sensitivity to the increase in CO2 that until now was positive, is no longer so and, since 2010, the biosphere no longer has that strong capacity to act as a sink for carbon dioxide." The Earth is saturated and can no longer absorb any more anthropogenic CO2.
In addition, the global fertilization capacity is due not only to the increase in CO2 or nitrogen, but also to other types of resources such as phosphorus (which like oil is a limited good and linked to the land) or water, two elements that They are not growing at the same rate as carbon dioxide and nitrogen emissions. The lack of these resources "will mark the ability of vegetation to remove carbon from the atmosphere," warns Marcos Fernández Martínez, co-author of the study and CREAF researcher.
The study also mentions events from 2015 that reflect the transition to a warmer Earth: bleaching of Australian corals, large fires in Southeast Asia, floods in South America, droughts in Africa, among others.
"The severity of climatic phenomena such as droughts are also especially negative for plant productivity, especially if they occur during periods of vegetation growth," says Jofre Carnicer, co-author of the study and a scientist at CREAF.
How to reverse the situation?
Peñuelas details that “if a more important use of alternative energies were made or if new modes of CO2 absorption were put into operation, through bioenergy techniques or plant productivity in crops (both agricultural and forestry) or physical or chemical sequestration of carbon ”could slowly reverse the damage generated.
In any case, we will be able to comply with the agreements of the Paris Climate Summit (COP21), although "only in the most optimistic scenarios will we achieve an increase in temperature that is not harmful or problematic for humanity," concludes Peñuelas.
With information from: