It is estimated that the decrease in rainfall will be 22% in northeast Brazil and a 25% increase in the southeastern part of the subcontinent.
According to the study, climate change may harm the stability of food security due to greater uncertainty regarding the productive performance of agricultural activities, household income and food prices.
Aware of the risk, almost all the countries in the region have ratified the Paris Agreement, which will enter into force on November 4. In addition, the governments are working to establish comprehensive strategies to combat hunger within the framework of adaptation to climate change, such as the 2025 Plan for Food Security, Nutrition and Eradication of Hunger of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States.
How it will affect agriculture and livestock
In temperate zones, the productivity of soybeans, wheat and pastures will increase, the increased dryness of soils and thermal stress would reduce productivity in tropical and subtropical regions.
Furthermore, greater salinization and desertification are expected in the arid zones of Chile and Brazil, while rainfed agriculture in semi-arid zones will face greater crop losses.
Fishing will also be affected
FAO also predicts that climate change will reduce primary fish production in the tropical Pacific and that some species of fish will move south.
Climatic phenomena and their impact on the various ecosystems
Increased frequency of storms, hurricanes and cyclones will harm Caribbean aquaculture and fisheries, changes in temperature can alter the physiology of freshwater fish species and lead to subsidence of coral reef systems.
Regarding forests, the report indicates that in the Amazon there will be a greater risk of frequent fires, a loss in the area of forests and the conversion of these lands into savannas.
In Central America, climate change will place 40% of mangrove species in danger of extinction.
With information from: